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ПУБЛІЧНА ПОЛІТИКА ТА АНАЛІЗ ВИГІД ТА ВИТРАТ
В. І. Усик

DOI: 10.32702/2307-2105-2021.9.3

УДК: 351:323: 330.13

В. І. Усик

ПУБЛІЧНА ПОЛІТИКА ТА АНАЛІЗ ВИГІД ТА ВИТРАТ

Анотація

Використання інструменту аналіз вигід та витрат при створенні та впровадженні політики є актуальним питанням, особливо в період невизначеності та існування проблем світового характеру, що торкаються людських життів. Цей інструмент не є панацеєю для прийняття ефективних та правильних рішень, але однозначно допомагає приймати більш зважені рішення, обирати саме той варіант політичної пропозиції, де вигоди перевищують витрати або ж є більшими за одних і тих же витрат. Основне правило – це чіткість дотримання алгоритму, неупередженість та відсутність суб’єктивізму при оцінці наслідків та результатів. Саме цей інструмент допомагає урядам багатьох країн та керівним органам міжнародних організацій створювати більш системну та обдуману політику, передбачати наслідки, враховувати практично всі витрати та вигоди та обирати з-поміж кількох варіантів найоптимальніший. Так, в період пандемії аналіз витрат та вигід також став одним з основних інструментів для аналізу пропонованої політики. І хоч очікувані наслідки для тої чи іншої політики завжди невизначені до впровадження та реалізації політики, але процес проведення аналізу вигід та витрат допомагає зосередитися на тих аспектах політики, які є найбільш затратними та найбільш вигідними.

Ключові слова: аналіз вигід та витрат; інструментарій; політика; стейкхолдери; політична пропозиція; пандемія.

Література

1. Adler Matthew D., Posner Eric A. New Foundations of Cost-Benefit Analysis.Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 2006.
2. Levin H. M., McEwan, P. J. Cost-effectiveness analysis: Methods and appli-cations(2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 2001.
3. De Nooij M. Social cost-benefit analysis of electricity interconnector investment: A critical appraisal. Energy Policy. 2011. № 39. P. 3096–3105.
4. De Nooij M.. Mega sport events: a probabilistic social cost benefit analysis of bidding for the Games. Journal of Sports Economics. 2013. № 15 (4). P. 410-419.
5. Dehnhardt A. The influence of interests and beliefs on the use of environmental cost-benefit analysis in water policy – the case of German policy makers. Environmental Policy and Governance. 2014. № 24 (6). P. 391-404.
6. Persky J. Retrospectives. Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Classical Creed. Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2001. № 15 (4). Р. 199 – 208.
7. Andersson, H., Hultkrantz, L., Lindberg, G., Nilsson, J.E. Application of BCA in Europe – experiences and challenges. Journal of Benefit Cost Analysis .2018. № 9 (1). Р. 120-146.
8. Mackie P.J., T. Worsley, J. Eliasson. Transport Appraisal Revisited. Research in Transportation Economics. 2014. №47. Р. 3-18
9. Vawda A.Y., P. Moock and J.P. Gittinger “Economic Analysis of World Bank Education Projects and Project Outcomes”. International Journal of Educational Development. 2003. № 23(6). Р. 645-660.
10. Cost-Benefit Analysis in World Bank Projects. The World Bank. Washington, D.C. 2010. 79p.
11. Canadian Cost-Benefit Analysis Guide Regulatory Proposals, represented by the President of the Treasury Board. 2007. URL: http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca (дата звернення: 30.08.2021).
12. Introductory Handbook for Undertaking Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA). Version 1.0. 2008. 51р.
13. Guidelines for Preparing Economic Analyses URL: https://www.epa.gov/environmental-economics/guidelines-preparing-economic-analyses#download (дата звернення: 30.08.2021).
14. Economic Evaluation Overview URL: https://www.cdc.gov/policy/polaris/economics/index.html (дата звернення: 30.08.2021).
15. An Expert Guide to Cost Benefit Analysis URL: https://www.smartsheet.com/expert-guide-cost-benefit-analysis?fbclid=IwAR1ju9p7H2lokZXP9BXJfa-IrTrKU95x9jrp2nPW1TFGkJphBfD4UrYfj8o (дата звернення: 30.08.2021).
16. Policy on Cost-Benefit Analysis URL: https://www.canada.ca/en/government/system/laws/developing-improving-federal-regulations/requirements-developing-managing-reviewing-regulations/guidelines-tools/policy-cost-benefit-analysis.html (дата звернення: 30.08.2021).
17. Thunström L., Newbold S., Finnoff D., Ashworth M., Shogren J. The Benefits and Costs of Using Social Distancing to Flatten the Curve for COVID-19. Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis. 2020. № 11(2). Р. 179-195.
18. Greenstone Michael, Nigam Vishan. Does Social Distancing Matter? Economics Working Paper. 2020. N. 2020-26. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3561244 (дата звернення: 30.08.2021).
19. James Broughel, Michael Kotrous. “The Benefits of Coronavirus Suppression: A Cost-
Benefit Analysis of the Response to the First Wave of COVID-19.” Mercatus Working Paper,
Mercatus Center at George Mason University, Arlington, VA, June 2020.
20. Acemoglu, D., Chernozhukov, V., Werning, I., & Whinston, M. D. (forthcoming). A multi-risk sir model with optimally targeted lockdown. American Economic Review. URL: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&q=Acemoglu%2C+D.%2C+Chernozhukov%2C+V.%2C+Werning%2C+I.%2C+%26+Whinston%2C+M.+D.+%28forthcoming%29.+A+multi%E2%80%90risk+sir+model+with+optimally+targeted+lockdown.+American+Economic+Review%3A+Insights. (дата звернення: 30.08.2021).
21. Noah Stein, Rob Moore. Closing Schools for COVID-19. A Cost-Benefit Analysis. Scioto Analysis. 2020. URL: https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5bdb6f642714e55b84ebe507/t/5ef0e19b03e56c3a4a905c46/1592844726518/schoolclsing.pdf (дата звернення: 30.08.2021).

V. Usyk

PUBLIC POLICY AND COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

Summary

Cost-benefit analysis is an analytical tool that allows to assess the benefits and costs of policy change in monetary terms in order to inform decision-makers. This tool was developed for rational decision-making by systematically weighing the advantages and disadvantages of possible activities. It currently plays a key role in shaping public policy in various areas, such as law, health and safety, environment and agriculture, construction, transport, health and education, energy, water management and sport. The use of the cost-benefit analysis tool in policy-making and implementation is a topical issue, especially in times of uncertainty and the existence of global issues affecting human lives. It is especially relevant for the practice of public administration in a period of change and turbulence. And especially important - in conditions of financial constraints and pandemics. This tool is not a panacea for effective and correct decisions, but clearly helps to make more informed decisions, to choose the option of a political proposal where the benefits outweigh the costs or are greater than the same costs. The main rule is the clarity of the algorithm, impartiality and lack of subjectivity in assessing the consequences and results. It is this tool that helps the governments of many countries and the governing bodies of international organizations to create more systematic and thoughtful policies, anticipate the consequences, take into account almost all costs and benefits, and choose the most optimal of several options. During the pandemic, many studies were conducted using the cost-benefit analysis tool to assess government policies to implement certain rules in certain countries. Expected effects of this or that policy is always uncertain for the introduction and implementation of policies, but the process of analyzing the costs and benefits helps to focus on those aspects of policy which are the costliest and the most profitable. Through cost-benefit analysis, policymakers can describe and quantify the likely consequences of a policy. Cost-benefit analysis forces policymakers to think about the impact of a policy proposal from the outset and to identify unintended consequences long before the impact is monetized.

Keywords: cost-benefit analysis; policy; stakeholders; policy proposal.

References

1. Adler, M. D. and Posner, E. A. (2006), New Foundations of Cost-Benefit Analysis, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, UK.
2. Levin, H. M. and McEwan, P. J. (2001), Cost-effectiveness analysis: Methods and applications, 2nd ed, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
3. De Nooij, M. (2011), “Social cost-benefit analysis of electricity interconnector investment: A critical appraisal”, Energy Policy, vol. 39, pp. 3096–3105.
4. De Nooij, M. (2013), “Mega sport events: a probabilistic social cost benefit analysis of bidding for the Games”, Journal of Sports Economicsno, vol.15 (4), pp. 410–419.
5. Dehnhardt, A. (2014), “The influence of interests and beliefs on the use of environmental cost-benefit analysis in water policy – the case of German policy makers”, Environmental Policy and Governance, vol. 24 (6), pp. 391–404.
6. Persky, J. (2001), “Retrospectives. Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Classical Creed”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 15 (4), pp. 199–208.
7. Andersson, H., Hultkrantz, L., Lindberg, G. and Nilsson, J.E. (2018), “Application of BCA in Europe – experiences and challenges”, Journal of Benefit Cost Analysis, vol. 9 (1), pp. 120–146.
8. Mackie, P.J., Worsley, T. and Eliasson, J. (2014), “Transport Appraisal Revisited”, Research in Transportation Economics, vol. 47, pp. 3–18
9. Vawda, A.Y., Moock, P. and Gittinger, J.P. (2003), “Economic Analysis of World Bank Education Projects and Project Outcomes”, International Journal of Educational Development, no.23(6), pp. 645–660.
10. Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat (2007), “Canadian Cost-Benefit Analysis Guide Regulatory Proposals”, available at: http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca (Accessed 30 August 2021).
11. The World Bank (2010), “Cost-Benefit Analysis in World Bank Projects”, available at: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/2561(Accessed 30 August 2021).
12. OECD (2008), Introductory Handbook for Undertaking Regulatory Impact Analysis. Version 1.0., OECD, Paris, France
13. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2010), “Guidelines for Preparing Economic Analyses”, available at: https://www.epa.gov/environmental-economics/guidelines-preparing-economic-analyses#download (Accessed 30 August 2021).
14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2021), “Economic Evaluation Overview”, available https://www.cdc.gov/policy/polaris/economics/index.html (Accessed 30 August 2021).
15. Weller, J. (2016), “An Expert Guide to Cost Benefit Analysis”, available at: https://www.smartsheet.com/expert-guide-cost-benefit-analysis?fbclid=IwAR1ju9p7H2lokZXP9BXJfa-IrTrKU95x9jrp2nPW1TFGkJphBfD4UrYfj8o (Accessed 30 August 2021).
16. Government of Canada (2018), “Policy on Cost-Benefit Analysis”, available at: https://www.canada.ca/en/government/system/laws/developing-improving-federal-regulations/requirements-developing-managing-reviewing-regulations/guidelines-tools/policy-cost-benefit-analysis.html (Accessed 30 August 2021).
17. Thunström, L., Newbold, S., Finnoff, D., Ashworth, M. and Shogren, J. (2020), “The Benefits and Costs of Using Social Distancing to Flatten the Curve for COVID-19”, Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis, vol.11(2), pp. 179–195.
18. Greenstone, M. and Nigam, V. (2020), “Does Social Distancing Matter?” Economics Working Paper, vol. 2020–26, available http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3561244 (Accessed 30 August 2021).
19. Broughel, J. and Kotrous, M. (2020), “The Benefits of Coronavirus Suppression: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Response to the First Wave of COVID-19”, Mercatus Working Paper, Mercatus Center at George Mason University, Arlington, VA.
20. Acemoglu, D., Chernozhukov, V., Werning, I., and Whinston, M. D. (2020), “A multi-risk sir model with optimally targeted lockdown”, American Economic Review, available at: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&q=Acemoglu%2C+D.%2C+Chernozhukov%2C+V.%2C+Werning%2C+I.%2C+%26+Whinston%2C+M.+D.+%28forthcoming%29.+A+multi%E2%80%90risk+sir+model+with+optimally+targeted+lockdown.+American+Economic+Review%3A+Insights (Accessed 30 August 2021)
21. Noah, S. and Rob, M. (2020), “Closing Schools for COVID-19. A Cost-Benefit Analysis. Scioto Analysis”, available at: https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5bdb6f642714e55b84ebe507/t/5ef0e19b03e56c3a4a905c46/1592844726518/schoolclsing.pdf (Accessed 30 August 2021).

№ 9 2021

Дата публікації: 2021-09-30

Кількість переглядів: 167

Відомості про авторів

В. І. Усик

д. е. н., доцент,професор кафедри національної економіки та публічного управління,ДВНЗ «Київський національний економічний університет імені Вадима Гетьмана»

V. Usyk

Doctor of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of National Economy and Public Administration, SHEI "Kyiv National Economic University named after Vadym Hetman"

ORCID:

0000-0002-0938-400X

Як цитувати статтю

Усик В. І. Публічна політика та аналіз вигід та витрат. Ефективна економіка. 2021. № 9. – URL: http://www.economy.nayka.com.ua/?op=1&z=9252 (дата звернення: 16.10.2021). DOI: 10.32702/2307-2105-2021.9.3

Usyk, V. (2021), “Public policy and cost-benefit analysis”, Efektyvna ekonomika, [Online], vol. 9, available at: http://www.economy.nayka.com.ua/?op=1&z=9252 (Accessed 16 Oct 2021). DOI: 10.32702/2307-2105-2021.9.3

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